The First Anglo-Afghan War was fought between the British Empire and the Emirate of Afghanistan between 1839 and 1842. The British Empire was successful at invading Afghanistan and occupying Kabul in the beginning and they also made agreements with emirs Dost Mohammad and Shah Shujah. The Indian British forces lasted in Kabul for a few years until they were forced to retreat in 1842 because of the harsh winter. The British then sent an Army of Retribution to protect its forces and help them leave Afghanistan. After the British forces left the country, Dost Mohhamed returned from India and took back the power.

The Second Anglo-Afghan War endured from 1878 to 1880 between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan governed by Sher Ali Khan and Dost Mohammad Khan. The British forces from India invaded Afghanistan in 1878 and Sher Ali Khan had to surrender. This led to the Treaty of Gandamak in May 1879. After that event, the British sent a mission to the country led by Louis Cavagnari but the mission was attacked by Ayub Khan and the tension between the two empires returned until the British defeated Ayub Khan’s army near Kandahar in 1880. The British then validated the Treaty of Ganandamak again and they were provided with economical and political power in the country.

VOCABULARY

invade – megtámad

agreement – egyezmény

retreat – visszavonul

harsh – zord

endure – kitart

surrender – megadja magát

treaty – békeszerződés

tension – feszültség

Image by David Peterson from Pixabay 

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