In the last years, the European Union, policies such as the framework agreement on part-time employees and the working directive on agency staff have had an impact on employment. 

The development of employment policies is a sign that the governments recognise workers’ rights. In the past 15-20 years across most countries, part-time and other non-standard employees have had fewer or no employment rights such as sick or vacation leave or access to training compared with full-time employees. 

Nonetheless, employment is flexible and responsive to changing market demand in some countries. These new directives provide some protection for workers in non-standard situations as ensuring similar benefits to the ones that full-time employees receive. So we can see that the new EU policies have had a prominent role recently. 

The length of the general working week is still associated with working from Monday to Friday, 8 hours per day, during daylight hours.

Women have also been active in the paid labour market for over a century: some women are employed even in industries such as manufacturing and agriculture by the above standard working patterns.

Changes in the employment of women have been influenced by the changing labour market structure. Women have progressively moved into new fields over the last 20 years and now account for a larger share of the labour force. Many women are economically active while married or live in cohabitation

The role of home office work has a and more significant role in the last years. Working from home full or part-time is another approach to balance work and family life or an option for those who cannot find or do not want full-time work. 

We can see that in the past years, the nature of the non-standard work has been changed. This type of work is advantageous for employment because it has a different taxing system which is often cheaper. From the past 20 years till now, we can see that more and more businesses, companies and ventures have offered part-time jobs.

However, the presence of children or dependent adults, as well as the household income, were all found to influence the decision of women to participate in paid work and whether they undertook full-time or part-time work. However, demand-side factors, such as the availability of part-time job within the country, may also affect changes in working trends nowadays. 

VOCABULARY

policy – irányelv

framework – keretrendszer

compare with – összehasonlít valamit valamivel

directive – irányvonal

prominent – meghatározó

associated with – össze van kapcsolva valamivel

labour market – munkaerőpiac

cohabitation – együttélés

significant – jelentős

approach – megközelítés

taxing – adózás

influence – befolyásol

undertake – vállal

demand-side factor – tényezők, melyek valaminek az igényét váltják ki

Photo: Gerd Altmann / Pixabay

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